Al-Mīthāq (Research Journal of Islamic Theology) <p><strong>Journal Name: Al-Mīthāq (Research Journal of Islamic Theology)</strong> (المیثاق ریسرچ جنرل آف اسلامک تھیالوجی )</p> <p><strong>ISSN</strong>: 2791-0989 (Print Version) 2791-0997 (Online Version)</p> <p>Subject: Doctrinal theology; Philosophy (General) Quranic Science, Ḥadith Sciences, Islamic History, Economics, Politics, Culture and Civilization, Sufism, Shariah &amp; Law, Comparative Religions</p> <p><strong>Frequency</strong>: Bi-Annual (2 issues per year)</p> <p><strong>Nature</strong>: Print and Online</p> <p><strong>Submission E-mail</strong>: </p> <p><strong>Language of Publication</strong>: English, Arabic, Urdu</p> <p><strong>Accreditation</strong>: By the Higher Education Commission (HEC) of Pakistan, <strong>"Y"</strong> Category<strong> 2023-24 </strong></p> <p><strong>Published by: Hira Institute of Social Sciences Research &amp; Development (حرا انسٹیٹیوٹ آف سوشل سائنسز ریسرچ اینڈ ڈویلپمنٹ)</strong>is a registered <strong><span data-dobid="hdw">organization </span>under The Societies Registration Act, 1860 of Pakistan.</strong></p> <p><strong><span lang="EN-US">place of publication: Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan (بہاولپور ، پنجاب ، پاکستان)</span></strong></p> Hira Institute of Social Sciences Research & Development en-US Al-Mīthāq (Research Journal of Islamic Theology) 2791-0989 نظریہ اسلامیت علوم:تحقیقی وتجریاتی مطالعہ <p>Muslim intellectuals and academicians have constantly been engaged to bridge up between Islamic and modern sciences. Modern western sciences, natural, physical social sciences are based on the principles of observation, empiricism, and objectivity whereas Islamic sciences incorporate some additional sources mainly revealed knowledge. After the colonialism, a wave of differentiating between Islamic and western epistemology was observed in muslin countries. This thought-provoking idea was echoed first by a well-known Palestinian scholar Al-Farūqī and its sound was heard and adopted in various other Muslim countries like Malaysia Indonesia, Saudi Arabia, and so forth. The present article intends to analyse this discourse along with its history, major themes, its relationship or lack of relationship with modernity, the possibility of integration, annihilation and isolation. The subject also highlights the contradictions and fundamental differences between IOK and modern western epistemology. However, there are serious challenges to be faced by its critics, and answers to that criticism have to be addressed only by those scholars who have equal competence to comprehend both Islamic and western principles of epistemology. This article will analyse the content of the subject and find out strengths and weaknesses.</p> Dr Hafiz Hamid Ali Awan Shakil Ahmed Dr Muhammad Waseem Mukhtar Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-25 2023-10-25 2 02 01 15 شاہ ولی اللہ کا فلسفہ اجتماع اور اس کی عصری اہمیت <p>The scientific and industrial revolution that came to Europe in the seventeenth century<br>AD ended the triangle of power of monarchy, feudalism and papacy and modernized<br>the society on the basis of democracy, industry, knowledge and rationalism. Western<br>philosophers, especially John Locke, Rousseau, Thomas, Freud, Adam Smith and Karl<br>Marx played a very important role in the reconstruction of Europe. These philosophers<br>envisioned the reconstruction of European society based on secular philosophy. While<br>in the subcontinent in the same era, Imām Shāh Wali Ullāh presented the philosophy of<br>forming a society on religious basis in the context of the changing world conditions and<br>changes the demands of the new era. In the political theory of social formation, he<br>envisioned a government based on public support and protection. In economics, he<br>envisioned the protection of the rights of the working class, the determination of<br>working hours and minimum taxes for public welfare. He envisioned sociology,<br>introduced the theory of evolution in which he shed light on the history of evolutionary<br>stages of human society. He clarified the features of the establishment of international<br>government from the early life of man. He not only mentioned the problems of the past<br>from the study of history but also presented the solution of the problems faced by the<br>human community in the present. He called the combination of material development<br>and relationship with Allāh necessary for the formation of a righteous society.</p> Abdul Majid Dr Muhammad Saeed Akhtar Copyright (c) 2023 Abdul Majid 2023-10-27 2023-10-27 2 02 16 32 فقہ اسلامی کی تشکیل جدید کے ضمن میں ڈاکٹر وہبہ الزحیلی کے افکار(الفقہ الاسلامی وادلتہ کا اختصاصی مطالعہ) <p>Islamic jurisprudence provides guidance to Muslims in every sphere of daily life. This legal system has evolved from primary level to the developed form since the time of beginning i.e. Prophetic era. During the lifetime of Prophet ﷺ, he was the absolute legal authority, however the <em>Ḥadith</em> of <em>Muodh Ibn Jabal</em> declares that <em>Ijtihad</em> was also permissible. This source of Islamic jurisprudence (<em>Ijtihad</em>) has perpetuated the principle of movement in Islamic legal system and has made it workable with the present modern world. In recent years, many jurists and thinkers have voiced the reconstruction of Islamic jurisprudence according to the needs of contemporary issues. Different ideas have been put forwarded by different scholars about this process of reconstruction. Some of them term it as complete legislation according to <em>Quran</em> and <em>Sunnah</em>, the others render it as new formation of Fiqh literature. Dr Wahbah Al-Zuḥayli, a prominent Syrian scholar and jurist is renowned for his thoughts on the reframing of Islamic jurisprudence. Dr Wahbah Al-Zuḥayli has a long list of academic works on his credit but his most famous book on comparative Islamic jurisprudence is Al-Fiqh Al-Islama wa Adalituhu. In this monument work, Dr Wahbah Al-Zuḥayli has suggested many new ideas to reframe the Islamic jurisprudence according to the needs of the hour. His core thought about this process is “to compile a cosmopolitan Fiqh from the collective Fiqh literature of all jurists”. An attempt has been made in this article to highlight the thoughts of Dr Wahbah Al-Zuḥayli&nbsp;on the reconstruction of Islamic jurisprudence.</p> Dr Mubashar Ahmad Dr Muhammad Abid Nadeem Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-29 2023-10-29 2 02 33 45 عہدِ خلافتِ راشدہ کی روشنی میں اقتصادی معاملات میں ریاستی مداخلت کا تحقیقی مطالعہ <p>The economic sector is the broadest in human life. Justice moderation and balance are very important in the economic sector. In this context, the state has the right to intervene in economic matters so that the state establishes justice and balance in economic matters. All the responsibilities of the development of economic affairs are imposed on the state. Therefore, the state can monitor the economic affairs by using its powers and can intervene where necessary to maintain moderation. Among the practical steps taken by the <em>Khulafā</em> during their <em>Khilāfat</em> for the welfare of the society, the most important was the guidance of economic matters. Where they saw poverty or immoderation or injustice in economic matters, they corrected the economic matters by using the state powers. In this regard, they formulated such principles for the public interest which can be adopted in the present day to improve the economic affairs. Today the world is suffering from many problems, among which the main problem is the economy, so the action of the state in this matter is seen as very necessary. The <em>Khulafā</em> intervened in economic matters so that people could uphold justice in financial matters, i.e. buying and selling. As the result, there could be no shortage, exploitation, hoarding, fraud, price increase in the market. In the article under review, it has been clarified that the state has the right to intervene in financial matters and its evidence and examples have been presented from the era of the <em>Khilāfat-e-Rāshidah</em>.</p> Tooba Riaz Dr Muhammad Imran Dr Tanveer Akhtar Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-01 2023-11-01 2 02 46 63 انسانی شناخت کی پدری یا مادری جہت کےحوالے سےنصوص ِشرعیہ کامطالعہ <p>Regarding the identification of people on the Day of Resurrection, there has been a debate among scholars whether they will be identified by the name of the father or by the name of the mother. Some scholars say that they will be identified by their mother's name, and in the opinion of others, they will be identified by their father's name. Each group has its arguments. In the following article, an attempt has been made to reach a correct opinion by reviewing their arguments. By the study of the <em>Qur'ān, Sunnah</em> and the maxims of the Jurisprudence, the research concludes that children will be identified by the name of their fathers instead of their mothers on the Day of Judgment. The view of being called by the name of mother is weak and the arguments presented in this regard are also weak.</p> Dr Ghazi Abdul Rehman Qasmi Dr Razia Shabana Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-02 2023-11-02 2 02 64 77 عہدِ بنو امیہ اور عہدِ بنو عباس سے متعلق فلپ کے ہٹی کی آراء <p><em>Philip K Hitti</em> has tried to present the era of <em>Banū Umayyad</em> and <em>Banū Abbās</em> in his book in a comprehensive manner in “History of the Arabs”. In this book, <em>Hitti</em> has used important sources of Muslims, but in some of very sensitive topics he has tried to form his position on the basis of such sources which are not reasonable and worthy of inference for Muslims. For an honest historian, this aspect is very important to that he should give priority to the agreed sources over the non-agreed and disputed sources and describe the facts and events in the manner in which they would have happened. <em>Hitti </em>has tried to present his book on this standard, but those topics which he has taken from legendary books and collections of anecdotes put question mark on his scholarly integrity and understanding of Islamic history. While presenting the historical scenario in controversial issues, the events should not be relied on writings presented by a single class or a single author, but the positions of other schools of thought and their arguments should also be taken into consideration. In this context, the flaw in <em>Hitti's</em> book is that he could not keep this requirement of justice while writing the history of Muslims.</p> Syed Adeel Shah Najeeba Kanwal Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-06 2023-11-06 2 02 78 93 مولانااشرف علی تھانوی کی آراء کی روشنی میں ازواج کو لباس سے تشبیہ دینے کی حکمتیں اور وجوہات <p>Costume is the basic essential for every human. Man gets adornment from clothe.&nbsp; Good attire is which suits for the body. Clothing always fetches decent to the human being. There are different strategies for matching the clothes, i.e. Humans get the veil from the cloth and he protect himself from the heat, the cold and the seasonal changings. A person's disgrace and modesty is protected by dressings. In the same way, spouses also fulfil each other's requirements just as the clothes are meeting these requirements. Through this analogy, it is necessary for the marriage of the human, regardless of the age, the purpose of the marriage is mentioned in this verse. The intricacies and ups and downs of the relationship are described by taking advantage of the comparison of the relationship between husband and wife to a human attire. By taking advantage of this analogy, this guidance has been given on how to maintain mutual relationships. Similarly, the need for divorce, dislocation (<em>Khul‘a</em>), widows and polygamy has also been proved by the same word "clothes''. With each example, the solution to the ancient and modern problems of the couple has been presented by drawing the analogy of clothes. In this article, the <em>Qur‘ānic Āyah</em>, in which the spouse is called covering to each other, is presented and the arguments of <em>Moulānā Ashraf ‘Alī Thānvī</em> in this regard have been specifically discussed.</p> Hafiz Abdul Wahab Dr Abdul Ghaffar Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-08 2023-11-08 2 02 94 104 خواجہ سراؤں کےمعاشی مسائل کاشرعی تدارک :ضلع مردان کےحوالےسےخصوصی مطالعہ <p><em>Allāh</em> has created humanity in two categories, male and female. These two categories are the main stakeholders of the survival and continuity of the human being, whose rights and duties have been determined according to them. In addition to these two categories, the creation of eunuchs (Transgenders) is also an undeniable fact, which <em>Allāh</em> has created and they have the right to equality in basic human rights. However, human society has a very unpleasant attitude towards this gender, which is very important to correct. Many problems have to be faced in life and they are sometimes deprived of basic human rights such as education, employment and medical treatment. In current era, Transgenders are facing various financial problems in Pakistani and especially Pashtun society. Islamic <em>Shari‘ah</em> has provided this group with all the basic human rights that a normal human being, i.e. a man and a woman, has. In the article under review, some details of Transgenders belonging to Mardān district and their financial problems are mentioned in detail. After these problems, a <em>Shari‘ah</em> and research review has also been presented. The authors have collected the information through surveys and interviews. In this article, along with the description of the Transgenders of Mardān district, their financial problems have been identified and the <em>Shari‘ah</em> and research analysis of these problems has also been done.</p> Kashif Ali Syed Yasir Bacha Saif Ullah Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-13 2023-11-13 2 02 105 115 قرآن وسنت کے تناظرمیں والدین کی بچوں سےمتعلق ذمہ داریوں کاتجزیاتی مطالعہ <p>Children are considered as precious gift from <em>Allāh</em> <em>Ta‘ālā</em>. <em>Islām</em> places great importance on marriage as a means to not only establish a family unit but also to ensure the upbringing of righteous and well-mannered children. <em>Islām</em> encourages individuals to choose their life partners wisely, taking into consideration their character, piety and compatibility. By doing so, it aims to create a strong foundation for a harmonious and nurturing family environment, which in turn contributes to the upbringing of better children. After marriage, <em>Islām</em> provides guidance on various steps to raise children in the best possible way. This includes teaching them the principles of <em>Islām</em>, instilling good manners and ethics, and providing them with a well-rounded education. <em>Islām</em> emphasizes the importance of nurturing children with love, care, and discipline, ensuring their physical, emotional, and spiritual well-being. While ECE is receiving attention globally, it may not be fully functional in some areas, including Pakistan. It is true that children spend a significant amount of time at home, which makes parents the primary influencers in their early development. However, there are challenges that parents face in providing proper guidance and support to their children. One such challenge is the increasing use of mobile devices and other distractions that can hinder effective parenting. It's important for parents to strike a balance and create a nurturing environment that promotes the holistic development of their children. Ultimately, it's a collective effort involving parents to ensure that children receive the best possible start in life. By recognizing the importance of ECE and taking proactive steps, we can work towards creating a brighter future for our children as it's taught by <em>Islām</em>. Furthermore, <em>Islām</em> encourages parents to be role models for their children, displaying good behaviour, kindness, and patience. It emphasizes the significance of spending quality time with children, engaging in meaningful conversations, and actively participating in their upbringing. By following these teachings, <em>Islām</em> aims to produce polite, trained, and educated offspring who contribute positively to society and uphold the values of <em>Islām</em>. The focus is on raising children who have a strong moral compass, a deep understanding of faith, and the ability to make sound decisions. Overall, <em>Islām</em> provides a comprehensive framework for individuals to strive for the best upbringing of their children, ensuring that they grow up to be righteous individuals who positively impact their families, communities, and the world at large.</p> Noor Akram Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-19 2023-11-19 2 02 116 127 جبری طلاق کے احکام ومسائل : ایک فقہی جائزہ <p><em>Allāh Ta’ālā has made a complete arrangement for the protection of man’s religion and his life, property, intellect and reputation through his decrees, which the jurists have described as the five basic purposes of the Shari‘ah. It is also due to kindness of that he has declared the man’s will to be necessary for health, dispositions and accountability. Islam differentiates between pressure and authority. It is a source of mercy, love and kindness for human beings. Reluctance (compulsion to do something) is one of the acquired disorders. It is not one of the voluntary actions of a person, but it is the action of another. The basic principle is that there is convenience and relaxation in the Shari‘ah rulings in the state of coercion or emergency. This is the reason why the jurists have distinguished between the levels and orders of the Shari‘ah rulings in the presence of coercion. The article under review is also an important issue of "divorce" in which an analytical study of the explanations and arguments of the jurists in this regard has been presented. According to the Aḥnāf, divorce of Mukrah (pressurised person) is valid and it will have affects, while it does not happen according to other jurists. The research concludes that the Aḥādith and Āthār presented by the both parties, although they are not clear in indicating the desired meaning. In this situation, it seems impossible to order the occurrence even on the divorce given by him.</em></p> Nazia Atta Dr Hafiza Bareera Hameed Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-30 2023-11-30 2 02 128 138 پاکستان کےمشترکہ اور جداگانہ خاندانی نظام میں درپیش مسائل کاشرعی تدارک <p><em>Both the joint and separate family systems, which both have certain benefits and difficulties, are strongly ingrained in Pakistan's family structure. However, these family structures may run into several issues that could cause arguments and strained bonds. In this study, the problems of joint and separate family structures are examined, and recommendations for improvement are made based on Islamic beliefs. Joint and separate family structures are equally common in Pakistani society, which is largely based on the family system. However, some of the challenges that arise within these systems can be addressed by turning to Islamic teachings for guidance. The study focuses on four main issues: communication and conflict resolution, sharing of resources and financial responsibilities, gender roles and equality, and privacy and personal space. Islamic teachings place great importance on clear communication, fair distribution of resources, gender equality and protection of personal space. Islam places great importance on clear communication, fair distribution of resources, gender equality and protection of personal space. By following these teachings, individuals and families can work to maintain peaceful relationships and resolve conflicts in a way that is consistent with their religious ideals. The answers proposed in this research provide a basis for strengthening the family structure in Pakistan and advancing Islamic principles and teachings. Additional studies and actual application of these theories are needed to solve the problems faced in joint and separate family systems of Pakistan.</em></p> Hafiz Saif Ur Rehman Dr. Sahibzada Baz Muhammad Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-01 2023-12-01 2 02 139 148 "سیرۃالمصطفیٰﷺ "ازمولاناادریس کاندھلوی رحمۃ اللہ علیہ کامنہج واسلوب <p><em>Biography of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ which is called, Sīrat, is more important in the field of Islamic history. He (ﷺ) has the honour that his life from birth to death have been written with complete detail and research. No one else has this honour. Muslims have written thousands of books on the Prophet’s (ﷺ) biography, in every language, every era. Every aspect of his life has been written without stopping and will continue till the Day of Judgment. Pakistan has also the centre of Muslim historians and writers. Here, many people worked on Sīrat of the Holy Prophet (ﷺ) and they wrote many books, in which the life of the Holy Prophet (ﷺ) was presented to the people in a new, attractive and effective way. One of the well-known biographical books of the subcontinent is "Sīrat-al-Muṣtafā" authored by Mawlānā Idrīs Kāndhlavī, The article under review deals with the approach and style of his compilation. Scholars in every era have given this book a special place and status. During the compilation, the author referred to the main sources of biography and history and mentioned their references at several places. The research concludes that in terms of content, style and reasoning, this book has a prominent place in biographical books and is a real achievement, the study and research of which is very beneficial.</em></p> Basheer Ahmad Dr Muhammad Irfan Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-07 2023-12-07 2 02 149 157 اللسانیات واھمّ مدارسھا <p><em>With the appearance of human life on the planet, language was given to man, through man expresses the thoughts in his conscience, and with the use of language, man expresses his likes and dislikes or his desired or orders. It expresses that humanity has been given the power to use language for communication among themselves. This is the reason why man is considered to be distinguished among all other creatures in this regard. However, Arabic is one of the most eloquent human languages. This article is about Linguistics, its definition and the details of its types, and the special knowledge of Linguistics among its types. According to how many periods it consists of, this research has details about it. Awareness about the branches of linguistics and especially the historical division of Linguistics among the branches of linguistics has been highlighted and explained.</em></p> Abdul Baseer Dr Hafiz Shafiq ur Rehman Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-24 2023-11-24 2 02 01 10 الإنسان بين السواء والاضطراب الداخلي في ضوء الدراسات الإسلامية وعلم النفس الحديث:دراسة مقارنة <p><em>This paper aims to present teachings concerning normality and mental disorder of man reviewing contemporary psychological concepts with special reference to Islamic teaching. Physical and spirit aspects of human beings are significant in this regard. Those people who fulfil the spiritual and bodily requirements, Islam considers them balanced persons. On the other hand, shortfall of balance leads to various avenues of disorder. Employing analytical and comparative methods, we examined normality and mental disorder of man in Islam and contemporary psychology. This study finds that a normal personality, according to the teachings of Islam, is one that reconciles the two sides (material and spiritual) of a person while abnormal personality disturbs the balance with reference to social abilities and responsibilities. Psychologists have set standards to determine normal behaviour from abnormal behaviour. Islamic psychological discovery and guidance includes multiple aspects to protect humanity from psychological disorders guiding towards importance of Dhikr, prayer, repentance, charity, and other acts of worship and good deeds in promoting psychological and spiritual health in addition to forgiveness, tolerance, and achieving internal and external reconciliation are of great importance in enhancing psychological health. The study highlights contemporary psychology tools and techniques used to treat psychological disorders and promote mental health while Islam encourages psychological counselling and guidance, and encourages seeking specialized psychological treatment when needed.</em></p> Dr Wajahat Khan Dr Muhammad Ashfaq Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-29 2023-11-29 2 02 11 21 An Overview of the General Aspects of Ṣirāt-al-Jinān fī Tafsīr-al-Qur’ān in the Context of Contemporary Tafsīrī Literature <p>Tafsīr Ṣirāt-al-Jinān fī Tafsīr-al-Qur’ān, is an outstanding work of Islamic exegesis, occupies a unique place in modern Tafsīrī literature. This abstract provides an overview of the general aspects of this landmark work and highlights its meaning and relevance in the context of modern Qur’ānic interpretation. Tafsīr Ṣirāt-al-Jinān provides a comprehensive approach to Qur’ān interpretation that combines traditional and modern methods. It delves deeply into the text of the Qur’ān, exploring linguistic, historical and theological aspects, giving readers a deep understanding of the Bible's message and teachings. Known for its meticulous attention to Arabic, this work reveals nuances that often remain hidden. In the context of modern Tafsīrī literature, Tafsīr Ṣirāt-al-Jinān stands out for its progressive approach. It addresses contemporary challenges and questions and provides insights and guidance that resonate with current intellectual and societal concerns. Adaptability to modern issues ensures continued relevance in an ever-evolving world. The work also shows a strong commitment to interreligious dialogue and harmony. It seeks commonalities with other religious traditions and promotes inclusivity and mutual understanding. This approach has earned Tafsīr Ṣirāt-al-Jinān much praise and made it an influential resource for scholars, students, and practitioners of Islam interested in interreligious relations. In conclusion, Tafsīr Ṣirāt-al-Jinān is a valuable contribution to modern Tafsīrī literature. It bridges the gap between tradition and modernity and provides a comprehensive, linguistically accurate and socially engaged interpretation of the Qur'ān. Our commitment to inclusivity and interreligious dialogue increases our relevance in a globalized world where mutual understanding and respect are paramount. This book serves as a guide for anyone who wants to deepen their understanding of the Qur'ān in modern times. This commentary has been written by Muftī Muhammad Qāsim Qādrī on the movement of Mawlānā Muhammad Ilyās Qādrī and his comrades. This ten-volume commentary was published in May 2017 in its entirety by Faiḍān-e-Madīnah Karachi.</p> Dr Abdul Hameed Mian Saadat Ali Nadeem Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-15 2023-11-15 2 02 01 17